The Ivory Bull-leaper and the Bull-leaping Fresco from Knossos
The Archaeological Museum of Heraklion on Crete was recently honored with a Special Commendation at the annual European Museum of the Year Awards (EMYA), held by the European Museum Forum (EMF) in Zagreb, Croatia.
The EMYA Judges praised the museum for presenting a cutting-edge interpretation of the history and civilization of Crete, focused on the rise and decline of the Minoan culture. “The museum is a huge social and cultural asset for the island, influencing tourism, the economy and the local community”, EMF said in an announcement.
The Heraklion Archaeological Museum was also nominated for the Council of Europe Award, in recognition of the Minoan Civilization’s broad dimension, displayed in a unique way at the Museum’s premises.
The European Museum of the Year Award 2017 was won by the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva, Switzerland. The ceremony was held on May 6 and was attended by more than 200 people from 29 European countries. It coincided with the 40th Anniversary of the European Museum of the Year Award and the Council of Europe Museum Prize, which are among the longest running, prestigious awards in Europe.
Archaeologist Georgia Flouda, Head of the Heraklion Archaeological Museum Stella Mandalaki and archaeologist Defkalionas Manidakis.
Archaeological Museum of Heraklion – Overview
In the Museum of Heraklion were housed the findings of the major excavations conducted in the island since 1900, focused initially on the palatial complexes. Moreover the museum collections were largely enriched with antiquities from all over Crete, as the archaeological activity continued without interruption throughout the century, investigating settlements, cemeteries and sacred caves. Thus the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion hosts today the largest and most significant collection of Minoan antiquities worldwide. The exhibits outline the history and the most important aspects of the Cretan civilization from the dawn of the Neolithic era in the 7th millenium BC until the end of the Roman antiquity in the 4th century AD.
Among the most important exhibits of the Minoan Collection are:
• The small snake goddess figurine. Ca. 1600 BC. From the palace of Knossos. Faience figurine of the chthonic Minoan deity. Typical features of these religious figurines are the upraised or stretched arms wielding the crawling snakes, the thin-waisted bodice which left the breasts bare, and the characteristic, flounced skirt with the apron. These figurines are outstanding examples of the neopalatial miniature sculpture.
• Rock-crystal rhyton. Ca. 1500 BC. From the palace of Zakros. Small ritual libation vessel. The body is carved from a large core of rock-crystal and the handle is made of crystal beads threaded on a bronze wire. This unique vessel was restored from hundreds of small fragments.
• Rhyton in the shape of a bull’s head. 1550-1500 BC. From the Small palace of Knossos. The vessel is made of black steatite, the details of the head are incised, the eyes are inlaid with rock-crystal and jasper, the muzzle is inlaid with white shell (mother-of-pearl) and the horns, now restored, were made of gilded wood. An outstanding example of the skill of the Minoan lapidaries.
• The Phaistos Disc. 17th century BC. From the palace of Phaistos. Clay disc that bears on both sides 242 signs, impressed with sealstones. The text runs in a spiral form starting from the edge towards the centre. The signs belong to an ideographic and probably syllabic script, which has not yet been deciphered despite the numerous attempts over the years.
• The “Bull-leaper’s fresco”. Ca. 1550 BC. From the palace of Knossos. The wall-painting bears a representation of the bull-leaping, a kind of contest or sport, probably of a religious character, in which both men and women took part. A man is shown jumping over the back of a bull with a female figure on each side. Numerous representations of this ritual sport are known in Minoan art, among them the bull-leaper figurine, made of ivory and also found in the palace of Knossos.
• The golden ring from Isopata. 1600-1400 BC. It was found in a tomb at Isopata, in the vicinity of Knossos. The golden signet ring depicts women in ecstatic ritual dance, in a meadow with lilies. The smaller figure is considered to be a goddess descending from the sky. On the ground, the signs of an eye and snakes can also be seen. A true masterpiece of Minoan goldwork.
• The ring with a scene of tree worship. 1600-1500 BC. From the necropolis of Phourni at Archanes. This golden signet ring was placed on the chest of a deceased woman. The iconography on these artefacts is a valuable source of knowledge about the Minoan religion. The ring from Phourni bears on its tiny bezel a unique scene of Minoan worship. At the centre is a strong-looking female figure, possibly a goddess or priestess, wearing an opulent dress and raising her right hand in a gesture of benediction. This may be an epiphany of the Minoan goddess, also known from other similar representations. To her left is a young vigorous man who touches or pulls out a tree from within a walled tripartite shrine. At the other end of the composition is a second man who kneels in lamentation and holds an object, possibly a funerary pithos. This dramatic scene is interpreted as a representation of the human life cycle, a basic feature of Minoan worship. A chrysalis, two butterflies, a sacred eye and a column of the Egyptian god Osiris complete the composition.
• The “Bee pendant”. Ca. 1700 BC. From Chrysolakkos of Malia. Golden jewel in the form of two bees or wasps which are depicted storing away a drop of honey in a comb. This is one of the most famous Minoan artefacts. The technique of minute granulation, which allows fine details to be depicted, and the naturalistic style still compel admiration today. A masterpiece of the Protopalatial Minoan jewelry.